There is a significant interest in identifying blood-borne factors that mediate tissue crosstalk and function as molecular effectors of physical activity. Although past studies have focused on an individual molecule or cell type, the organism-wide secretome response to physical activity has not been evaluated. Here, we use a cell-type-specific proteomic approach to generate a 21-cell-type, 10-tissue map of exercise training-regulated secretomes in mice. Our dataset identifies >200 exercise training-regulated cell-type-secreted protein pairs, the majority of which have not been previously reported. Pdgfra-cre-labeled secretomes were the most responsive to exercise training. Finally, we show anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and exercise performance-enhancing activities for proteoforms of intracellular carboxylesterases whose secretion from the liver is induced by exercise training.